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Ulrich Kleinhans, Christoph Wieland, Flemming J. Frandsen, Hartmut Spliethoff, Ash formation and deposition in coal and biomass fired combustion systems: Progress and challenges in the field of ash particle sticking and rebound behavior, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 68, 65-168, 2018

 Patrik Yrjas, Michiel Carbo, Arno Janssen, Pedro Abelha, Timo Leino, Leena Hupa, Influence of fuel pre-treatments on ash forming elements and implications on corrosion, 23rd International Conference on Fluidized Bed Conversion, 2018, Seoul


Joronen, T., Björklung, P., Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, High Quality Fuel by Steam Explosion, 25th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 2017, Stockholm

Flemming J. Frandsen, Quantification of Release of Critical Elements, Formation of Fly Ash and Aerosols: Status on Current Understanding and Research Needs, Proceedings 11th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers, 218, 2017, Albufeira, Portugal


Flemming J. Frandsen, Sebastian Fendt, Hartmut Spliethoff, IMPACTS OF FUEL QUALITY ON POWER PRODUCTION, the 26th international conference September 19-23, 2016, Prague, Czech Republic.

Related Publications prior to Biofficiency

Aho, M., Paakkinen, K., & Taipale, R. (2013) Destruction of alkali chlorides using sulphur and ferric sulphate during grate combustion of corn stover and wood chip blends. Fuel 103, 562-569

Aho, M., Roppo, J., Hedman, M., Maunula, J., Leino, T. & Kauppinen, J. (2015), Protective power of coal and peat against alkali chloride formation and Cl deposition with forest biomass in FBC. In: proceedings of  22th BFB, Turku, Finland,  35-45

Bajamundi, C.J.E.Vainikka, P.Hedman, M.Silvennoinen, J.Heinanen, T.Taipale, R.Konttinen, J (2015). Searching for a robust strategy for minimizing alkali chlorides in fluidized bed boilers during burning of high SRF-energy-share. Fuel 105, 25-36.

Balan, G., Losurdo, M., & Spliethoff, H. (2013). Experimental Study of High-Temperature Chlorine-Induced Corrosion in Dependence of Gas Velocity. Energy & Fuels, 27(10), 5628-5639.

Bankiewicz, D., Vainikka, P., Lindberg, D., Frantsi, A., Silvennoinen, J., Yrjas, P., & Hupa, M. (2012). High-temperature corrosion of boiler waterwalls induced by chlorides and bromides - Part 2: Lab-scale corrosion tests and thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of ash and gaseous species Fuel, 94, 240-250.

Boukis I., Vassilakos N., Karellas S., Kakaras E. (2009). Techno-economic analysis of the energy exploitation of biomass residues in Heraklion Prefecture-Crete, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 362-377.

Carbo, M.C.; Abelha, P.M.R.; Cieplik, M.K.; Mourao, C. & Kiel, J.H.A. (2016) Fuel pre-processing, pre-treatment and storage for co-firing of biomass and coal in Fuel Flexible Energy Generation: Solid, Liquid and Gaseous Fuels, ed. John Oakey, Woodhead Publishing (Elsevier), Cambridge (UK).

Cenni, R., Frandsen, F., Gerhardt, T., Spliethoff, H., & Hein, K. R. G. (1998). Study on trace metal partitioning in pulverized combustion of bituminous coal and dry sewage sludge. Waste Management, 18(6), 433-444.

Christodoulou C., Grimekis D., Panopoulos K.D., Vamvuka D., Karellas, S., Kakaras E. (2014). Circulating fluidized bed gasification tests of seed cake residues after oil extraction and comparison with wood, Fuel, 132, 71-81.

Cieplik, M.K.; Fryda, L.; Kamp, W.L. van de & Kiel, J.H.A; (2011) Ash formation, slagging and fouling in biomass co-firing, in  Solid Biofuels for Energy ed. Grammelis,P.; Springer-Verlag London Ltd, London (UK).

Damø, A.J., Wu, H., Frandsen, F.J., Glarborg, P., Sander, B.; Impact of Coal Fly Ash Addition on Combustion Aerosols (PM2.5) from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Pulverized Wood; Energy & Fuels, 28, 3217-3223, 2014.

Dr. Thomas Krause, Dr. Yaqoub Al-Khasawneh, Alfons Leisse - MHPSE, Lars Lærkedahl - DONG Energy, (2014) Upgrade of Mills and Burners for Biomass Firing in Denmark,      Power-Gen Europe 2014, 3 – 5 Juni 2014, Cologne.

F. Van Stappen, D. Marchal, Y. Ryckmans, R. Crehay, Y. Schenkel, Green certificates mechanisms in Belgium: a useful instrument to mitigate GHG emissions, Proceedings of the 15th European Biomass Conference, Berlin, 7-11 May 2007.

F.J. Frandsen, S.C. van Lith, R. Korbee, P. Yrjas, R. Backman, I. Obernberger, T. Brunner, M- Jöller; Quantification of the Release of Inorganic Elements from Biofuels; Fuel Processing Technology, 88, pp. 1118-1128, 2007.

G. Stein-Brzozowska, C. Bergins, A. Leisse, E. Kakaras (2015) Feuerungssysteme der Zukunft aus der Perspektive eines Anlagenbauers,  VDI 27. Deutscher Flammentag 16./17.09.2015 Clausthal.

Hansen, S.B.; Jensen, P.A, Frandsen, F.J., Wu, H., Sander, B., Wadenbäck, J., Glarborg, P.; Deposit Probe Measurements in Large Biomass-Fired Grate Boilers and Pulverized-Fuel Boilers; Energy & Fuels, 28, 3539-3555, 2014.

Hedman M., Enestam S., Kinnunen H., Engblom N., Roppo J., Boiler atmosphere profile with focus on heavy metal behavior in a full-scale recovered fuel fired CFB boiler, 22nd FBC, June 14-17.2015, Turku, Finland

Hedman M., Maunula J., Sorvajärvi T., Toivonen J., Vainikka P, Measurement and control of the corrosivity of the environment in combustion of solid recovered fuels in BFB boiler. Impacts of fuel quality on power production and the environment, September 23-27.2012, Puchberg Austria

Julien Blondeau, Hervé Jeanmart, David Rochaya, Yves Ryckmans, Patrick Allard, Pulverized biomass combustion: chemical and physical aspects of particles pyrolysis in global simulations, ICCEU conference, March 2012.

Julien Blondeau, Hervé Jeanmart, Yves Ryckmans, Patrick Allard, David Rochaya, Biomass combustion in pulverized-fuel boilers: use of apparent pyrolysis parameters in CFD codes, INFUB 9 conference, April 2011.

Karellas S., Leontaritis A.-D., Panousis G., Bellos E., Kakaras E. (2013). Energetic and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery systems in the cement industry, Energy, 58, 147-156.

Kourkoumpas D.-S., Karellas S., Kouloumoundras S., Koufodimos G., Grammelis P., Kakaras E. (2015). Comparison of waste-to-energy processes by means of life cycle analysis principles regarding the global warming potential impact: Applied case studies in Greece, France and Germany, Waste and Biomass Valorization, 6, 605-621.

Kreutzkam, B., Wieland, C., & Spliethoff, H. (2012). Improved numerical prediction of ash formation and deposition using a novel developed char fragmentation model. Fuel, 98, 103-110.

Leino, T., Aho. M., Gynther, S., Ruuskanen, T., .&Häkkinen. M. (2013), Experiences from a novel sensor for fireside corrosion monitoring during grate combustion of corn stover-wood chip blends. Energy& Fuels 27 5653-5662.

Leiser, S.; Cieplik, M.K. & Smit, R. Slagging Behavior of Straw and Corn Stover and the Fate of Potassium under Entrained-Flow Gasification Conditions; (2013) Energy & Fuels (American Chemical Society), Ed.27, p.318-326.

Liisa Mäenpää, Materialwahl für Dampferzeuger und Rohrleitungen für die 600 °C - und 700 °C – Technologie, (2008), Technisches Forum “Rohre und Rohrzubehör” 13. März 2008, Düsseldorf.

Lindberg, D, Niemi, J., Engblom, M., Yrjas, P., Lauren, T., & Hupa, M. (2016). Effect of temperature gradient on composition and morphology of synthetic chlorine-containing biomass boiler deposits. Fuel Processing Technology, 141 (Part_2), 285-298.

M. Agraniotis, A. Koumanakos, A. Doukelis, S. Karellas, E. Kakaras (2012). Investigation of technical and economic aspects of pre-dried lignite utilisation in a modern lignite power plant toward zero CO2 emissions, Energy, 45 (1), 134-141.

M.S. Bashir, P.A. Jensen, F.J. Frandsen, S. Wedel, K. Dam-Johansen, J. Wadenbäck, S.T. Pedersen; Ash transformation and deposit build-up during biomass suspension and grate-firing: Full-scale experimental studies; Fuel Processing Technology; 97, pp. 93-106, 2012


Modified commissioning procedure for USC boilers using material T24, (2013),Jörg Böwe, Martin Becker, POWER-GEN Europe 04.-06. Juni 2013, Vienna.

Okoro, S.C., Montgomery, M., Frandsen, F.J., Pantleon, K. (2015). High-Temperature Corrosion During Biomass Firing; Improved Understanding by Depth Resolved Characterization of Corrosion Products Materials and High Temperatures, 32(1-2), 92-101.

Roppo J., Long term experiences of mitigation of superheater corrosion with the Metso sulphate injection system, 21st FBC, 2012

Silvennoinen J., & Hedman M. (2013). Co-firing of agricultural fuels in a full-scale fluidized bed boiler, Fuel Processing Technology, 105, 11-19

Tanja Weirich, Alfons Leisse, Jürgen Niesbach, Christian Kuhr and Hans-Joachim Koczorowski, (2010), Flame lnvestigations of Coal and Biomass Combustion with a 35 MW DS® Burner and Modification for lndirect Firing, VGB PowerTech.

Vainio, E., Yrjas, P., Zevenhoven, M., Brink, A., Lauren, T., Hupa, M., Kajolinna, T., & Vesala, H. (2013). The fate of chlorine, sulfur, and potassium during co-combustion of bark, sludge, and solid recovered fuel in an industrial scale BFB boiler. Fuel Processing Technology, 105, 59-68.

Wieland, C., Kreutzkam, B., Balan, G., & Spliethoff, H. (2012). Evaluation, comparison and validation of deposition criteria for numerical simulation of slagging. Applied Energy, 93, 184-192.

Wu, H., Bankiewicz, D., Yrjas, P., & Hupa, M. (2015). Laboratory Studies of Potassium-Halide-Induced High-Temperature Corrosion of Superheater Steels. Part 2: Exposures in Wet Air. Energy & Fuels, 29(4), 2709-2718.

Wu, H., Bashir, M., Jensen, P., Sander, B. & Glarborg, P. (2013). Impact of fly ash addition on ash transformation and deposition in a full-scale wood suspension-firing boiler. Fuel, 113, 632-643.

Wu, H., Jespersen, J., Frandsen, F., J., Glarborg, P.,  Aho, M., Paakkinen, K. & Taipale, R. (2013)  Modeling of ferric sulphate decomposition and sulphation of potassium chloride during grate firing of biomass.  AIChE Journal 59, 4314-4324.

Wu, H., Lauren, T., Yrjas, P., Vainikka, P., & Hupa, M. (2014). Fate of bromine and chlorine in bubbling fluidized bed combustion - Formation of alkali halide aerosols. Fuel, 128, 390-395.

Yves Ryckmans, Conversion of a pulverized coal power plant to 100% wood pellets in Belgium, THERMALNET Newsletter, December 2006.

Yves Ryckmans, Natacha André, Novel certification procedure for the sustainable import of wood pellets to power plants in Belgium, Proceedings of the 15th European Biomass Conference, Berlin, 7-11 May 2007.