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The Biofficiency Project
Developing the next generation of highly efficient biomass Combined Heat and Power plants

Heating and cooling are responsible for almost half of the EU’s final energy demand. Biomass plays a critical role in the heat market, representing over 90% of all renewable heat in 2014 [1].

Utilising the heat generated during combustion of biomass for both the generation of electricity as well as for heating purposes (in what is called a Combined Heat and Power plant - CHP) is a suitable technology for medium- and large-scale units. Many of these plants can be found around Europe today, especially in the Scandinavian regions.

The main challenges for efficient CHP and high temperature steam production from biomass are ash-related problems.: The chemical composition of some types of biomass leads to corrosion of the boiler surfaces when high temperatures are reached. This limits the effective steam temperature that the boiler can reach, and therefore the plant's efficiency.

When these issues can be solved, large-scale boilers offer a huge potential for efficiency increases and emission reductions during CHP generation at cost competitive and environmental friendly conditions.


Power generation from biomass is unfortunately not as easy as this.

In order to enable a secure and almost carbon neutral heat and power generation, several measures have to be undertaken. The main objectives and goals of the Biofficiency project are:

  • Develop the design of the next generation, biomass-fired CHP plant with elevated steam temperatures up to 600 °C at medium to large scale (10 to 200 MWth).

  • Increase efficiency of CHP plants by elevating steam temperatures by understanding and solving ash-related problems – slagging, fouling and corrosion.

  • Reduce emissions – i.e. CO2, particulates, CO, NOX, and SO2 – by efficiency gains, reduction of impurities and intelligent plant design.

  • Widen the feedstocks for pulverised fuel (PF) and fluidised bed (FB) power plants using pre-treatment methods with a focus on the reduction of harmful, inorganic elements like chlorine, sulphur and alkali metals.

  • Widen ash utilisation and nutrient recirculation through detailed ash analysis in terms of chemistry and physical properties. Explore new ideas for the European technical regulation for future biomass ash usage.

  • Design of a reference CHP plant based on detailed measurement results and modelling studies.